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- Type: Regional Performance
- TITLE: NAME OF THE REGION: LEBANON
- KEY WORDS: Energy Policy - Solar Energy - Lebanon
- A solar sector positioning in the region: "Currently, only the 4,5% of energy is produced by renewable sources. The electricity sector in Lebanon is highly loss making with an energy deficit of 23% year. This situation generates a serious problem in the state budgets, being a 17% in 2007 and growing up to 35% in 2011.
This is due to several reasons:
- Energy Losses caused or technical reasons and lack of maintenance of the network
- Problems of overload in the metropolitan area of Beirut
Potential and Forecasts Implementation:
Medium Term (2020): 12% of the total of 804 MW will be renewable energies. Through Cedar Program (Country efficiency to renewable Energy Demonstration Project for the Recovery of Lebanon) project with funding support of Spain and the UN. And through NEEREA program, where the government provides loans at an interest rate of 0.6% and a repayment term of up to 14 years for the installation of photovoltaic.
A summary of the situation of the electricity sector for the year 2009 is presented in the “2010 Policy Paper for the Electricity Sector” as follows:
o Hydraulic power plants: The installed capacity of all hydro plants is 274 MW but the actual generation capacity is 190 MW. The energy produced from the hydro plants (Litani, Nahr Ibrahim and Bared) constitutes 4.5% of the total production.
o Thermal power plants: The installed capacity of thermal power plants is 2,038 MW but the capacity was 1,685 MW. The fuel cost varies widely from 9 USC/kWh to 22 USC/kWh.
- Potential and forecast implementation: "At the beginning of 2010, the Lebanese Government adopted the objective to gradually increase the share of renewable energies in energy consumption from 2% in 2010 to 12% in 2020, as part of its energy plan. It seems that the objective of 12% is still unclear for policymakers (Will RE cover 12% of total energy needs or 12% of electricity generation as stressed recently by the MoEW?). The difference between the two options is 8% of primary energy. It should be noted that, in March 2007, the Heads of State and Government of the 27 EU Member States adopted a binding target of 20% renewable energy in final energy consumption by 2020. This is combined with the commitment to increase energy efficiency by 20% until 2020.
We wonder whether RE will cover 12% of primary energy in Lebanon and we believe that this target is realistic.
On the other hand, the Strategy assumes that energy efficiency will contribute to reducing energy consumption by 5% in comparison to the base line scenario (business as usual, BAU – trend or reference) by 2020."
- Policies for the development of solar sector: It defines the role of the Government (main actor of energy sector in Lebanon) as well as the rules and principles organizing the sector as well as the basis of transferring it or its management, totally or partially to the Private Sector. This seeks an increase of energy generation of 400 mw for 2014 and 5000 for 2015. In the field of solar energy, last 21/12/2010 Lebanese government approved a National Energy Efficiency Action Plan NEEAP). This plan has identified the possibilities of renewable energies of the country. Seven of the plan aims are focused on the development of photovoltaic and want to try to pass for 100 MW to 200mw the power installed. This plan also seeks an increase the production of solar water with a plan that want to installed 1.050.000 m2 of solar system through NEEREA program.
- Barriers to implementation: "- Lack of enough information about renewable energies (Public Awarness)
- Lack of building legislations and regulations
- Bureaucratic difficulties
- Lack of funding
- Policy accelerator Regional needs: "- Need for specific legislation for solar energy
- Need for awareness campaigns
- Improved relationship with countries with more technical expertise and political
- Financial Aid Plans
- The RD for energy and the solar market in the region: "- Only policy guidelines encouraging R&D in the renewable energy field have been recorded.
- There is no national research body focused on renewable energies in general.
- The Lebanese National Center for Scientific Research (LNCSR) solar energy department has been closed for more than three years.
- The Industrial Research Institute (IRI) is conducting Energy Saving Projects with the Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Energy. The Industrial Research Institute (IRI) received a test bench.
- Major universities provide energy-related courses: courses in renewable energy, demand side management, energy efficiency, and energy planning and policy.
- The Lebanese University created a “Research Master in RES” for two years now
- Enterprise and research accelerator - Regional needs: "Studies were conducted by ALMEE and the Lebanese University for 40 MW solar plants in Beqaa near Zahlé. Two main initiatives are leading the way in decentralized photovoltaic power in Lebanon:
- Lebanese Center for Energy Conservation (LCEC), is currently on the road to becoming Lebanon’s main institutional reference in terms of government renewable energy and energy efficiency policy.
- The CEDRO project was established to implement renewable energy demonstration projects across public sector buildings.
- Over 100 kW of PV systems have been uniquely designed and installed by the CEDRO project, which is distributed over 71 public facilities across the country,
- The LCEC and the CEDRO will be obtaining funds of US$10 million in the coming three to five years to continue the promotion of PV systems across the country.
- The social accelerator - Regional needs: "The SHAAMS SOCIAL ACCELERATOR in Lebanon Region
• Increase the number awareness raising events/ actions involving citizens;
• Facilitate debates and exchanges for citizens to influence decision making processes.